ENGLISH ONLY

STEREOTYPES

We all know what they are and they appear to be most of the time true. This is good speaking practice. Get together with another person or talk to yourself about the following. The video at the bottom of the page is pretty funny…

Have you ever lived or worked or travelled outside your country?
Was it an easy or difficult experience? Why?
What were the main differences from where you live?

How easy/difficult is it for immigrants or visitors to adapt to the lifestyle in your country? Think about these aspects:

  • eating habits
  • family life
  • greetings
  • hospitality
  • personal space
  • work-life balance
  • showing emotions
  • sense of humour

Think about typical stereotypes in your country about the relationships between:
older and younger people
men and women
employers and employees

Which cultural aspects in your country do you think: 
visitors can begin to understand more quickly?
take longer to get used to?
you can only understand when you know the culture very well?

Geographical stereotypes:
name some nationality stereotypes
name some regional stereotypes
name some profession-related stereotypes
To what extent does your experience conform to these stereotypes?

To illustrate the topic you can watch the video below, which shows the way some European nationals view one another.

More present perfect!

Hello guys, here you have a wonderful explanation of this tense. It is a 20-page document with loads of exercises. By the way, there is a part which includes the passive tense. We have not studied it yet, so you may omit it. That´s it, have fun!!

presperfect

14TypicalMistakesWithPrepositions_4f6b1f25b606d

PRESENT PERFECT REVIEW

We use the present perfect simple this way when talking about our experience up to now in life:
have visited Rio,  but I have never been to Buenos Aires.

We use indefinite time adverbs like everbeforenever.
I’m sure we’ve met before.

The standard question in this use of the present perfect is Have you ever + past participle?
Have you ever cooked a meal for more than ten people?
 
If we want to talk about specific details about the experience, we usually change to the past simple and use adverbs of finished time (yesterdaylastmonth, three years ago).
Have you ever seen a ghost?
Yes, I have. I saw one at my granny’s house twenty years ago.

Watch the first video below and try to understand the conversation. Pay attention to the Have you ever…? questions. Also pay attention to the way these two teachers sometimes change to the past simple to discuss detail of the experience they are talking about.

Remember the short answer:
Have you ever seen a ghost?
Yes, I have.
No, I haven’t.

The second video is a follow-up of the first one. But the conversation is a bit harder to understand. However, it is interesting to watch because it very well exemplifies the change from present perfect simple to ask about experience to the past simple/past continuous to give details of that experience.

Video 1
Have you ever ridden an unusual animal?
Yes I have. I’ve ridden an elephant. Have you?
No, I have not.
Have you ever tried any extreme sports?
Yes, I have. I’ve jumped out of an airplane.
Ah, skydiving.
Yes! I’ve also been skydiving.
Ah, isn’t it fun?
It is!
Have you ever fired a gun?
Ah, yes I have.
What did you shoot at?
It was just shooting at a target.
Ok.
Have you?
Yes, I have, also at a target.
And have you ever hitch-hiked?
Yes, I have, once in Boston.
Ok.
Have you?
No, I’ve never done that.
Have you ever given a speech to more than ten people?
Yes, I have, to a room full of people when I was at school.
Have you?
Yes, I have. A few times at school.
And have you ever sung in a karaoke bar?
Yes, I have. I love karaoke. I have sung in several.
Really? And what do you like to sing?
All songs mostly. Have you?
No, I’m too afraid. I’ve never sung in a karaoke bar.
Ok.
And have you ever worn a silly hat in public?
Yes, I have for certain holidays or festivals. Have you?
Well, not since I became an adult. When I was a small child, yes, but… I’m too grown-up now.
Ok. And have you ever fallen down in public?
I’m sure I have. Have you?
Of course.
I think everybody does.

Video 2
So have you ever slept in a tent?
Yes, I have, when I was camping.
Ah, ok. Where were you camping?
I was camping in Connecticut where my parents lived.
Ok. Was it a big tent?
No, not big enough.
How many of you were camping?
Well, I think there were four of us.
Ok.
But it was good fun.
Have you ever seen a shark?
I have.
Really?
Fortunately only in the aquarium, because I think I would die of fear if I really saw one…
Ok.
… when I am swimming at the beach.
Yes, of course.
Have you?
No, I can’t say that I have.
They are very scary-looking creatures.
I believe it.
They really are.
I love to watch television programmes about them.
And have you ever played a joke on someone?
Yes, I have. Once I went to visit a friend’s university and while he was out of his room I put the fish tank on top of his bed, an empty one but a large one, and then filled it to the top with water, so that removing that tank and all of its contents would be something he would have to come home to.
That’s very, very cruel, especially if he came home very tired.
Well, we were very good friends.
Lucky!
Have you ever fallen asleep when someone is talking to you?
I don’t think so. That would be a bit rude. I know that I often fall asleep in front of the television, though.
Ok.
It’s a… it’s too easy sometimes. The sofa is very comfortable.
Of course.
Have you?
Actually I have. I was talking to a friend very late at night and we’d had a bit of wine and in the morning she told me that I’d stopped listening.
You just drifted off. She wasn’t too offended, I hope.
No, also good friends.
Good.

1 QUESTION MARKS OR NOT AT THE END OF REQUESTS

❚ The aim with requests is not to make them sound like orders. My advice would be to use a question mark at the end of all short requests written in a question form, e.g.

Could you get back to me as soon as you can?
Would you mind letting Carl know?

Alternatively you could add the word please and omit the question mark, e.g. Would you mind letting Carl know, please.

❚ With a longer, more complex ‘request question’, there is a stronger argument for not using a question mark, perhaps because the sense of its being a question has disappeared by the end. In the sentence below, the absence of a question mark seems fine to me as long as, once more, the word ‘please’ is included: Please could you remind students that if they don’t yet have an ID card, they should bring along an alternative form of identification, such as a passport.

 
2 THE RULES FOR COMMAS

❚ There’s a lot to be said about commas, but the rules below are the main ones.

a) When to use a comma:

– to separate items in a list: The play completed a very successful tour of Hungary, Bulgaria(,) and Romania.
– to introduce direct speech: Clara said, “Where will we find a chemist’s that’s open at this time of night?”
– in numbers, after thousands and millions: 550,000
– to separate a question tag from the rest of the sentence: It’s a long way to go, isn’t it?
– in clauses with participles, and with non-defining relative clauses: Stevenson plc lost the contract, leading to a sharp downturn in their business; Sebastian Coe, who won four Olympic medals, was appointed chairman of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games.
– after clauses beginning with connectors such as when, although and if: Although the fire caused no fatalities, the damage to the factory was extensive.
– with the words and phrases such as of course, for example and namely: There were, for example, two sightings of the bird in 2011 in the Scottish Highlands.

– to give additional, useful information (in a similar way to brackets):The journalist who investigated the incident, Mike Sams, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. The oil tanker ran aground on Taransay, an island in the Hebrides.

b) When not to use a comma:

– before ‘that’ in a clause: The CEO announced that the merger would take place in October.
– between separate sentences; use a full stop, semi-colon or conjunction instead: Performance dates have been changed, you can find the new ones on the website. Performance dates have been changed, but you can find the new ones on the website.
– to join two sentences together using the adverbs consequently, however, therefore and moreover: The UK has built a number of major new roads, however it is the train system that really requires additional investment.
The UK has built a number of major new roads. It is the train system, however, that really requiresMadditional investment.

 
3 APOSTROPHES

a) With personal names ending in -s
– With first names, it’s much more common these days to add ’s: Lucas’s house, Frances’s new job
This reflects the /iz/ that we add to the pronunciation of the name.
– With surnames, it’s still common to add ’s: Keynes’s economic policies

– but you will also find the apostrophe on its own, particularly in cultural references: Ulysses’ journeys, Keats’ poetry

b) My parents bedroom or My parents’ bedroom
It should be my parents’ bedroom (or my parent’s bedroom if there’s only one parent). I can’t think of any
normal context where my parents bedroom would be correct.

c )A Beatles record, a Beatles’ record or a record of the Beatles
A Beatles record is the normal usage, where the word Beatles is being used as an adjective to describe the record. In the same way, you would say a Rolling Stones album or a Hitchcock film. A record by the Beatles would be another way of saying a Beatles record. If you want to use Beatles with an apostrophe, it would be possible in a sentence such as The Beatles’ first tour of America took place in 1966.

JUST DO IT

This Nike ad was released in August this year. The underlying idea is that we are all capable of a little more.

Self-study activity:
Watch the ad and complete the gaps in the transcript with the missing words.

 

Listen, if you can run a (1) ,,, , run a (2) … .
You know what? Run a marathon.
Outrun a movie star.
If you can ride a (3) … , ride that thing.
Ride a (4) … . Ride a, ride a tougher (4) … .
Let’s watch this.
What kind of (4) … is that?
If you can move your (5) … , if you can dance, move your legs, move your feet, move the ball.
Is that Pique? (6) … the goal.
Yeah, that is Pique.
You like to fight?
Well pick on someone your own (7) … .
Pick on someone twice your (7) … .
Pick on him.
That’s not good.
Oh, uh… lesson learned.
If you can play table tennis, serve like that, (8) … the champ, (8) … her mentor.
C’mon you got this.
(8) … Serena.
If you can (8) … your friend one-on-one, (8) … him.
(9) … it, take it.
Sorry, girls.
Now, take your talents to the streets.
(8) … the street (10) … legend.
That’s good.
(8) … that guy.
(11) …   … .
We’ve been waiting for this.
That was nice.
Good luck with that.

KEY-KEY-KEY-KEY-KEY
1 mile 2 race 3 bike 4 bull 5 hip 6 Score 7 size 8 beat 9 Steal 10 court 11 Hold on

Hello class,

for those of you who have purchased all the New English File materials, you have an entry checker. This is a summary with all the grammar points from 2nd  of basic level. It´s a great booklet to review and revise all those contents. Here you have a document with the solutions. Happy checking!

key English File entry checker to Intermediate 3rd ed

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